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CONFEDERATIONS.                                 217
may punish the abuses of the freedom of the press so far as
they are directed against the confederation itself and its public
officers; and the cantons are authorized to make laws on the
same subject, which, however, must be approved by the
bundesrath or federal council (Art. 45). The citizens have
the right to form associations which are not opposed to jus-
tice or dangerous to the political state. The cantons can
legislate on this matter (Art. 46). The right of petition is
secured (Art. 47). All the cantons are bound to put all
Swiss citizens (Schweitzburger, or citizens of the confedera-
tion), in their legislation, as well as in their judicial proceed-
ings, on a footing of equality with their own citizens (Art. 48).
Judgments of courts in any canton can be executed in any
other (Art. 49). Every person' is entitled to his natural
courts, and no special courts can be established (Art 53).
The punishment of death shall not be inflicted for political
crimes (Art. 54). A law of the confederation shall regulate
extradition between cantons, but there shall be no such ex-
tradition for political offences or for offences against the laws
relating to the press (Art. 55). Foreigners who disturb the
peace or safety of the confederation maybe required to leave
Swiss territory by a law of the confederation (Art. 57). The
order of Jesuits and affiliated societies shall be admitted into
no part of Switzerland (Art. 58).
The bundesversainmlung, or the assembly of the confedera-
tion, is made to consist of two houses—a nationalrath, or coun-
cil of the nation, answering to our house of representatives,
and a standeratk or council of the estates, that is, of the can-
tons, answering to our senate, A representative can be sent
from each canton for every 20,000 souls, and for a fraction of
over 10,000. Every canton, and, where a canton is divided,
each of its parts, is entitled to at least one (Art. 61). The elec-
tions are direct, in districts not consisting of parts of different
cantons ; and every male Swiss, twenty years old or upwards,
is entitled to cast his vote, who is not excluded from active
citizenship by the laws of the canton in which he resides
(Art. 63). Every person who is qualified to vote, and is a