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2l8                             POLITICAL SCIENCE.
layman, is eligible to political office. The possession of
citizenship for five years entitles a naturalized citizen to hold
office. The house of representatives is renewed by election
every three years (Art. 65). No member of one house can
be also a member of the other, nor can any public officer
chosen by the nationalrath be one of its members at the
same time (Art. 66). This house as well as the other chooses
from among its members a president and vice-president, but
the president cannot be eligible to the same office or to that
of vice-president for the next regular session (Arts. 67 and
71). The standerath consists of forty-four deputies of the
canton, each sending two, and is paid by the cantons them-
selves (Arts. 69-72), but the members of the national coun-
cil are paid out of the national treasury.
The powers of the legislature are for the most part suffi-
ciently defined by the definitions of the powers of the confed-
eration already enumerated. They together fix the pay of
magistrates and officials of the confederation, create officers,
and determine the salaries pertaining to them ; their sanction is
necessary for treaties and conventions with foreign lands, and
they must accept the conventions of cantons mentioned above,
before these can have force. But such conventions come be-
fore these houses only when the executive or a canton has an
objection to make against them. They have an oversight
of the administration and judicial affairs of the confederation.
Such disputes between cantons as have an international
nature, come before them. It is competent for them to say
whether a subject belongs within the sphere of the confedera-
tion or that of a canton, and whether a matter falls within
the province of the council of the confederation or of its
court In the elections which they are entitled to make of
persons to fill the council, the court, the chancery, or higher
military offices, etc., the houses vote together, under the
president of the nationalrath as their head ; and an absolute
majority of the two houses decides. The same joint meet-
ings are required when pardons are granted, and when the
question of competence as between a canton and the confed-