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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

222                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
vigor, because the Vatican  council had been so  recently
held.
In 1874, however, a new constitution was actually carried
New constitution through by fourteen out of twenty-two cantons
of 1874.              ^i^ five old Catholic, Freiburg, and the Italian,
Valais, and Tessin, alone voting against it), and by a major-
ity of 142,000 voters out of 538,000 in all.    This constitution
is in all essential respects identical with that of 1848.    A few
differences or additions deserve notice.    In Art.  27 of the
constitution of 1874, the additions are made that primary
instruction, which must be " sufficient," and be placed under
the direction of the civil authority, is obligatory, and in the
public  schools,  gratuitous.     The  public  schools  must be
opened  to  the  adherents  of all confessions, without their
suffering in any way in their liberty of conscience and of
faith.    The confederation will take the necessary measures
against the cantons which do not satisfy these obligations.
In Art. 30, the cantons of Uri, the Orisons, Tessin,  and
Valais, receive on the score of their international mountain
roads an annual indemnity of more than half a million of
francs, and for the clearing off of snow from the St. Gothard,
Uri and Tessin some 40,000 more in all.    This might be right
enough; but it must have been intended also as a douceur to
secure votes for the constitution.    If so, it failed of its object
in part, for three of these cantons gave very strong majorities
against that instrument.    The payments, however, depended
upon faithfulness in attending to the routes in question (Arts.
3 37)-    The article proposed in  1869, of which we have
spoken above, is in part incorporated (Art. 49, end).    The
Jesuits and other religious orders are placed under a stronger
hand than in the constitution of 1848.    They and affiliated
societies cannot be received into any part of Switzerland,
" and all action in the church and the school is prohibited
to their members."    This prohibition may be extended also
in the shape of a federal resolution to other religious orders
dangerous to the state, or which disturb peace between the
confessions..   " No new converts or religious orders can be