224 POLITICAL SCIENCE. Utrecht and the Ommelande between the Ems and the Lau- wers, on the 23d of Jan., 15/9.* The rest of Groningen and Overyssel, with Drenthe joined the confederacy afterwards. They form a perpetual union, as if they were one province, without separating in any way or by any means. All privi- leges and customs are left untouched. Differences between members and towns of the union are to be adjusted by ordi- nary justice, and in an amicable way (Art. i). They agree to aid and succor one another even to the shedding of blood in the war against Spain (2), and any other potentate (3). Fortifications at the expense of the union are to be erected by the generality, or meeting of deputies of the provinces (4). Particular taxes are granted for the union's expenses, such as those on beer, salt, wool, grinding flour, cloth, etc. (5). A census of the inhabitants between the ages of eighteen and sixty is soon to be taken (8). No truce, peace, war or im- posts affecting the generality of the union can be lawful, save with the common advice and consent of all the provinces. In other matters the majority shall decide, which is to be ascertained, as now, in the generality of the estates. If there should be disagreement between the members of the union, the governors shall bring the parties to a common mind, or, If they find themselves unable to do this, shall call in the aid of assessors, and the parties shall be submissive to the deci- sions thus effected ($). No province, town or member of a province can make any confederacy or alliance without the consent of these united provinces and of their confederates (10), Others may be admitted into the league by the com- mon advice and consent of all the provinces (11). Apian of coinage for all the provinces is soon to be arranged (12). In matters of religion Holland and Zeeland are to act their pleasure. The religious peace made by the Archduke Mat- thias with the advice and consent of the states-general of the provinces, of which he was governor and captain-general, *The act may be found in Dumont's Corps Univ. Diplom. iv. in Dutch and French. The district of Drenthe never came to be an independent state (H. Leo, ii. 805), nor did North-Brabant.