CONFEDERATIONS. 22/ wished to confer on William of Orange the entire sovereignty within their borders, as long as the war should continue, in- cluding supreme military command with power of military appointment, and (with consent of the estates) the appoint- ment of financial and judicial officers. This new and en- larged stadtholdership was accepted by him July 5, 1581. The election of Anjou took place the same year, but he did not arrive in the provinces until Feb., 1582. The duke of Anjou failed most miserably, and after retiring into France, died in 1584, the same year in which William was assassinated. The same motive which led the provinces to choose a supreme chief from a rival of Spain, now led them to seek the alliance of England. The earl of Leicester, who was invested with the authority of stadtholder-general, showed almost equal incapacity with Anjou, and by his policy of favoring the democratic element which was attached to the house of Orange, seems to have raised up that spirit of jealousy within the states-general towards the chief execu- tive, which was so important an element in Dutch history afterwards. He died soon after the ruin of the Spanish Ar- mada in 1587, a defeat which was the great fruit of the Dutch alliance with England. The difficulties between the states general and Leicester, when he first went over to the provinces, will illustrate where the point of weakness in the constitution, and of possible conflict, would be likely to appear afterwards. The states general offered him complete or absolute power, but under- stood, as it appears, power without limit of time / and ex- pected that he should act under advisement of a council, and of course respect the liberties which the provinces had en- joyed under the Emperor Charles V. He chafed against their restrictions and oppositions, took a part which vexed the leading men of Holland and Zeeland, and intrigued with even as a shepherd to guard his sheep. When therefore he oppresses his subjects, he is to be considered not a prince, but a tyrant. As such, the estates of the land may lawfully and reasonably oppose him, and elect another in his room."