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230                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.

from his empire, and placing as sovereigns over it his daugh-
ter Clara Eugenia and her husband, an Austrian archduke
showed an intention to retire from the contest. His death
in the same year rendered future hostilities either of Spam or
of the Spanish Netherlands with the united provinces less
probable than before ; and a truce for twelve years, in 1609,
prepared the way for the peace between Spain and the Dutch
republic, made at Miinster in 1648, at the time when the
peace of Westphalia was under negotiation. By this peace
Spain acknowledged Dutch independence, and consented to
the closing of the Scheldt, which brought with it the decline
of Antwerp and the greater prosperity of the rival seaports
of Holland.

The earlier years of the seventeenth century were filled
with bitter religious disputes, and a synod was ordered with
reference to them by the states-general, through the influence
of Prince Maurice, and the votes of Zeeland, Guelders, Fries-
land and Groningen. The synod met at Dort in 1618, and
the unrighteous condemnation of Qlden-Barneveldt took
place in 1619. This great crime was committed by the
states-general then under the control of the Orange party;
and Maurice himself, not without unconstitutional proceed-
ings, procured the downfall of his determined enemy by en-
couraging a feeling of religious intolerance in which he did
not share. The synod condemned the remonstrants or Ar-
minians, and many fled from the land.

We pass over a number of years, during which Maurice
and his brother were stadtholders, down to
1647, when William II., son of the latter stadt-
holder, was chosen to fill the office. There was then a dis-
pute, between the states-general together with the stadtholder
on the one part and Holland on the other, in regard to the
dismission of troops which the former wished to retain and
the latter would have the principal burden of paying. The
estates of Holland decided in 1650 to dismiss quite a number
of companies without waiting for the states-general to act.
The latter reminded the troops of their oath, bade them stay

William II.