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232                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
Louis XIV. ; and the Bishop of Miinster with the Archbishop
of Cologne, on the borders of the provinces, joined in the
alliance. Meanwhile, there was a desire expressed by the
Orange party, then in the majority everywhere except in
Holland, that the prince of Orange, not yet twenty-two years
old, should be appointed captain-general for life. John De
Witt had to yield, so far as to consent that he should hold
that position for the existing campaign under some limita-
tions, but even to this Holland would not give its assent. In
November, 1672, when Prince William reached the age of
twenty-two, he was appointed both captain- and admiral-gen-
eral. The troops were in a poor condition ; no effectual
preparations seem to have been made to resist the invaders ;
Overyssel, Guelders, Utrecht, Drenthe, were occupied by their
armies, and many of the people charged De Witt with being
more anxious to put down the Orange party than to resist
French arms. The Orange party was intensely excited by
the unyielding energy of De Witt, and in June of this year he
was attacked and severely wounded by four men of good
condition, of whom one was beheaded, the rest having es-
caped. Demands were now made in several towns of Hol-
land that the perpetual edict should be annulled, and the
prince created stadtholder. Rotterdam, in the estates of
Holland, brought forward the motion to do this, and Amster-
dam proposed his elevation to the stadtholdership. Both
were carried, and he received for life the dignity which his
father had filled, with those of commander-in-chief of the
armies of Holland and Zeeland, as well as of their fleet, and
of commander-in-chief in the entire united provinces. This
outburst of feeling reacted against De Witt, and a mob drag-
ging him with his brother from prison, where they were shut
up, murdered them with fiendlike cruelty.
By 1674 the provinces which had been overrun were recov-
wiiHaa in. stadt- ere(^ and the states-general gave the prince of
Orange full power to reconstruct the govern-
ment there as he would. Utrecht formed a new constitu-
tion with a stadtholdership of far more extensive powers than