234 POLITICAL SCIENCE. sessions in the Indies. Thus the Orange party may be said to have secured for their head a kind of limited monarchy, which on his death, went to his successor, his son by Anne, daughter of George II. of England. He was driven out of the provinces in 1795, at the time of the formation of the Batavian republic.*- We notice in reviewing the progress of the Dutch constitu- Remarks on the tion One OI* tWO P°intS °f SOIlle Importance J Dutch constitution. and first ^ constant hold of the smaller, and especially the eastern, provinces on the desire to have a uni- tary head. The same is true also of the lower class in the sea-states, especially in Holland. Their leading motives in this feeling were, as far as we can judge, the fear they had of the aristocracy in the towns and lordships—of the town- councils and seignors—and so they leaned on the house of Orange as their protectors. The anti-Orange party was not kept up by patriotic fears lest the successors of William the silent might take away their liberties, so much as by the desire to control the country, to appoint the offices, as before the time when Phillip II. attempted to destroy their franchises. Another characteristic of Dutch politics was the hegemony of Holland. The states could do nothing without Holland, while that leading state, paying more than half the taxes, with immense wealth and, including Zeeland, with all the commerce of the provinces, took an independent position, to which its culture and the far-sightedness of its statesmen entitled it. The union was full of faults, among which the rule of unanimity of all the estates in war, peace, and alliance, was the principal. Its continuance was due to war, as was its origin. Had a time of perpetual peace followed the truce of 1609 with the Spaniards, it seems questionable whether the provinces could have held together. It is worthy of notice that the question of a stadtholder came back whenever dangers began to be imminent from foreign enemies, and that f *In the latter part of this sketch I have chiefly depended on Leo's history.