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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

234                             POLITICAL SCIENCE.
sessions in the Indies. Thus the Orange party may be said
to have secured for their head a kind of limited monarchy,
which on his death, went to his successor, his son by Anne,
daughter of George II. of England. He was driven out of
the provinces in 1795, at the time of the formation of the
Batavian republic.*-
We notice in reviewing the progress of the Dutch constitu-
Remarks   on the   tion   One   OI*   tWO   P°intS    °f   SOIlle    Importance J
Dutch constitution. and first ^ constant hold of the smaller, and
especially the eastern, provinces on the desire to have a uni-
tary head. The same is true also of the lower class in the
sea-states, especially in Holland. Their leading motives in
this feeling were, as far as we can judge, the fear they had
of the aristocracy in the towns and lordships—of the town-
councils and seignors—and so they leaned on the house of
Orange as their protectors. The anti-Orange party was not
kept up by patriotic fears lest the successors of William the
silent might take away their liberties, so much as by the
desire to control the country, to appoint the offices, as before
the time when Phillip II. attempted to destroy their franchises.
Another characteristic of Dutch politics was the hegemony
of Holland. The states could do nothing without Holland,
while that leading state, paying more than half the taxes,
with immense wealth and, including Zeeland, with all the
commerce of the provinces, took an independent position,
to which its culture and the far-sightedness of its statesmen
entitled it. The union was full of faults, among which the
rule of unanimity of all the estates in war, peace, and alliance,
was the principal. Its continuance was due to war, as was
its origin. Had a time of perpetual peace followed the truce
of 1609 with the Spaniards, it seems questionable whether
the provinces could have held together. It is worthy of
notice that the question of a stadtholder came back whenever
dangers began to be imminent from foreign enemies, and that
f *In the latter part of this sketch I have chiefly depended on Leo's
history.