CONFEDERATIONS. 335 the eastern provinces do not seem to have had much sympa- thy with Holland. The form of polity cannot be called a bundesstaat in the strict sense ; at the most it was one of the loosest of the confederacies that deserve to bear that name. The practical introduction of monarchy in a mild shape, late in its history, seems not to be due to a tendency towards uni- ty of power in the polity, but to weariness of useless contests, and the decay of political life in an old and wealthy country. Why was it, we may ask, that the federal republics of Federal system in Switzerland and of the seven provinces had so sSe±t"dvTnVehs different a -destiny—the one developing itself compared. jn ^ CQUrse Qf tjme jnto a Well-COmpacted democratic state, the other ending in a monarchy. The an- swer given by M. Passy in his treatise entitled, " des formes de gouvernement," p. 346,* is that the dissimilar destiny is owing to the difference of territorial situation. Switzerland, defended by its mountains and aloof from the politics of other lands, having once gained, could retain the form of polity suited to its traditions and forms of social life. Holland, with a commerce spread over the world, exposed to the jealousies of rivals in trade, with larger powers in its neighborhood, was almost of necessity involved in European war, "and at the end ranged itself amid the perils of invasion and ruin under a form of government which gave it a unity of direction, the absence of which would, without fail, have been punished by reverses more or less deplorable." And this tendency towards a unitary monarchy was aided, he thinks, by the presence of the Orange family, which was associated in unfading re- membrance with the heroic struggles of its birth and early years as an independent state. All this may he admitted, an<J yet we cannot concede that the whole or the chief difference between the two was caused by territorial situation. Holland had a stronger aristocracy of wealth and ancient title than Switzerland, it grew more rapidly in wealth and culture, while the political interests as * Paris, 1870.