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CONFEDERATIONS.                                 237
nies the Puritan settlements were begun mainly, in order to
enjoy religious forms and convictions in peace. They showed
the English self-governing spirit in its highest degree. Their
colonies were homogeneous from the first. If any colonies
had consolidated themselves into one, it would have been
easiest for them to make the experiment with success. In
fact, New Hampshire and Massachusetts were connected for
some time together, and New Haven was united permanently
with Connecticut. Thus also the territories and the province
of Pennsylvania were made distinct governments in 1703, and
the Carolinas' were divided in 1729. But, on the other hand,
it was easier for colonies of moderate size to thrive than for
vast ones, and such a size, by rendering long journeys through
unsettled tracts for justice and legislation unnecessary, made
self-government far easier. The southern cluster of colonies
had a character of their own, intensified, as we shall see, by
their form of industrial life. The middle were so unlike in
early origin and settlement, that each one had a character of
its own. Penn's colony differed greatly, at the beginning
and onward, from New York.
Another great difference lay in the form of life to which
the diversities of soil, climate and the outline of the coast
called them. The northern colonies were shut out from the
cultivation of those plants like cotton, rice, or the sugar-cane,
which could be produced in many parts of the southern
country. This limitation and their good harbors called them
in part to commerce and fisheries. They were destined to
be a commercial, and were fitted to become a manufacturing
people. Their main distinction from1 the southern country,
however, lay in this—that slavery, though it penetrated into
all the colonies and was allowed in all, could never thrive in
the north. There could be no great planters with troops of
slaves in this part of the colonial territory, while at the south
it was almost necessary that families of slaves should be
numerous and population scattered. The results of this
were great. The north could hold on to the township system,
suggested by the state of things in old England before the