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250                               POLITICAL SCIENCE.
shown to belong to it in various ways. Thus, while the arti-
cles of the earlier constitution are called " articles of confeder-
ation and perpetual union between the states of New Hamp-
shire," etc., the new constitution begins with "We, the
people of the United Statesódo ordain and establish," etc.
This change was without doubt intentional. Again, the con-
federation was created by legislatures. It closes with the
words " and whereas it hath pleased the great Governor of
the world to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respect*
ively represent in congress, to approve of and to authorize
the said articles," etc. On the other hand, the instrument of
1787 was to be put to vote to the people assembled in con-
ventions in each state, and not to be confirmed by the legis-
If we look at certain important provisions of the instru-
ment we shall reach the same conclusion. Article VI. de-
clares the constitution and the laws made in pursuance of it,
and all treaties made under the authority of the United States,
to be the supreme law of the land ; and that the judges in
every state are to be bound thereby, anything in the consti-
tution or laws of any of the states to the contrary notwitliT
standing. It proceeds also to prescribe an oath, pledging to
the support of the constitution all members of the state !CT
gislatures, the executive of the states, and their judicial
officers. And this support must be given not to the constitu-
tion, as they shall interpret it, but as the supreme court of
the United States shall find its meaning to be, in case any of
its articles shall have been the subject of their judicial inter^
Still more evident is it from the nature of the powers conr
ferred on the United States that it is something more than a
league or mere confederation. The general government, or
gongress with the chief executive, has all relations, commer-
cial and political, with other nations in its hands ; it has the
exclusive control of commerce between the states, the exelu-
give right of laying imposts and duties on imports and ex-
ports, and pn tonnage ; the exclusive right of keeping troops