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CONFEDERATIONS.                                35 1

and ships of war in time of peace ; the sole right of declaring
war and of engaging in it, except in actual invasion or immi-
nent danger of invasions of state . territory ; the right of
laying and collecting excises and other internal taxes ; the
power to suppress insurrections by its own armies or by call-
ing out the militia of the states. It has, thus, if there should
be serious resistance to the laws or any movement of violence
in which a state is concerned, the power to treat such state
as in a condition of war, to close its harbors by a blockading
force, to stop communications with it by the port officer or in
any other way, to pour troops into its territory* All these
are evidently state powers, so that the United States are the
only true state, and its sovereignty the only true and emi-
nent sovereignty. It is a great pity that the confederation
and the revolution fastened on us the name United States,
although it expresses a reality; for it has ever been played
false with, as if there was not something greater and higher
than the separate states created by the constitution. And
the word sovereignty, which is used in the articles of con-
federation and in the treaty of peace of 1783, as a quality
pertaining to the states, is no longer applicable to them within
the union, and is carefully avoided in the present constitution.
It has " paltered with us in a double' sense " as if there could
be two sovereigns, one without any international powers, and
many other properties essential to a true state, the other with
these in full tale.

2. It is a state formed by a union without merging the ex>
The  states still istence  of the  members   in that which they

kept up their orga-                                                                           ,                         .

created.    The highest expression of this is

all the states, great and small, have an equal representation
in the senate, chosen by the states in their legislatures and
not by direct voice of the people. This was made essential
to the formation of the constitution by the small states ; and
is confirmed by the constitution in the plause of Art. V. that
" no state without its consent shall be deprived of its equal
suffrage in the senate." This then is beyond th$ reach of
any amendment fa which the state concerned 4pes not