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266                              POLITICAL SCIENCE,
tradistinguished from loyalty to the constitution. There
will be no little friction in some of these machines sooner or
§ 216.
There is another question touching the division of powers—
Can the executive whether, namely, those which we called execu-
together?6 asse tive or administrative can logically be classed
together ? ' Is there a unity in the carrying out of the laws
possible ? For instance, is there any such relation between
the war power and the finance, that they ought to be regarded
as one or pertaining to one chief in the state ? If they are
one in such a sense that the same man has purse and sword
in his hand without control, that is the end of free govern-
ment, unless a device by means of checks prevents the evil
which the constitution gives rise to. One might blame the
clumsy scheme of a constitutional government which makes
a difficulty as if on purpose to mend it, did not the same .
complication and need of check run through man's nature
and much of his work? Simplicity and logical neatness are
not the good to be aimed at in politics, but freedom and
order, with props against the pressure of time, and arbitrary
will, and sudden crises. The powers in their political exer-
cise, as provided for by law, may or may not be put ulti-
mately in the hands of one man ; whether they shall or not
is a question not admitting any one answer. Thus much
may be said, that subordinate officials ought to be confined to
the exercise of one kind of authority; it is safer to restrict
them by law, rather than that the chief executive, as con-
senting to the acts of his subordinates, should be held re-
sponsible and be called to account in each case of illegality.
In treating of the executive among the departments of
Executive power government, we must refer the reader to what
and officers.           was sajd jn ^ section on the forms of govern-
ment in relation to monarchy, hereditary or elective, and
constitutional In regard to the chief officers of state, the
habits, traditions, and laws of each nation, together with their