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ing, united with a wise political tact, has made it to be re-
tarded as a matter of course that, after two terms at most, he
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should retire forever from political life. Thus he would have
eight years of very great power—more years than any Roman,
down to the end of the republic, filled the office of consul.
This is a striking example of a usage arising under a written
constitution, and adding to it a special limitation. The for-
mal prohibition of the re-election of the president after four
or six years would remove some of the evils of the present
The chief magistrate who is not hereditary must be elected
by the legislature, or by direct voice of the people, or in
some other manner. Our plan is to appoint electors from
each state equal in number to the two senators and the rep-
resentatives of each state, who at a prescribed time meet at
the place appointed, cast their votes, and choose some one to
carry these to Washington. When there is no choice by a
majority of votes, the house of representatives, voting by
states, has the power of electing the president and vice-
president. At first there was no special rule as to which of
two persons should have the higher and which the second of
these offices, but the rule was that he for whom the largest
number of votes was cast should fill the highest office. Ow-
ing to an equality of votes cast by the electors, the election
came into the house in 1801, and after protracted votings
and much intrigue Mr. Jefferson was chosen. That gave rise
to an amendment of the constitution, by which the two candi-
dates were voted for to fill each a specific office, and thus all
difficulty for the future was prevented.
The French, at different times, have referred the choice of
Election of the the chief magistrate to the people and to the
chief magistrate by          .                       %.                                *       *
the people.            legislature.    Since the fall of the second empire,
this and other questions relating to the form of a republic have
been earnestly discussed. M. de Laveleye, of Belgium, in
his essay " Sur les formes de gouvernement dans les socidt(5s
modernes," Paris, 1872, chap. 34, remarks that in 1848 the
president of the republic, after the example of the United