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2/2                            POLITICAL SCIENCE.
States, was elected by universal suffrage. " One must be
blind," he adds, " not to see that this was to give the nation
up into the hands of a master. In a country with the tradi-
tions of monarchy the president elected directly by the people
will hold in his hands the destinies of the national assembly,
To suppress it he will need only to give the word of command.
The people does not comprehend any power that is not repre-
sented by a person ; in their eyes the impersonal power of a
deliberative body is a mere shadow. It is necessary, then,
that the president must be named by the parliament. The
election of the president by the people in the United States
every four years calls forth a periodical crisis too intense for
the European nations to endure.* That would be enough to
give a disgust for the republican regime. . . . Switzerland
changes its president without attracting notice. Scarcely has
she a functionary deserving of the name ; but while in Switz-
erland the competence of the president is almost a nullity, in
France it is universal, immense, unlimited. It is absolutely
necessary for the parliament to have a legal and easy method
of recalling [*'. e.9 deposing] the president, since temptations
and encouragements to usurpation will not be wanting to
him. The upper chamber should have the power of removing
him from his place on the demand of the lower chamber.11
M. E. Duvergier d'Hauranne, in his " Republique conser-
vatrice " (Paris, 1873), discusses with ability the same subject
at some length, (pp. 186-204). Some of his positions .are
that the relations of the executive and legislative powers can-
not be regulated in an isolated way on abstract principles ;
but it is necessary to know how these powers will be adjusted
to one another. The executive power cannot be constituted
in the same way with two .chambers and with oneŚwith a
chamber renewed in part at intervals, and with one the mem-
bers of which go out of office together ; " with a sovereign
assembly invested with powers almost revolutionary and with
* The crisis of a presidential election, and the feeling then excited,
are magnified in the imaginations of the European writers on Amer-
ican affairs.