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280                              POLITICAL  SCIENCE.
many cities, or as at Athens, in the case of some offices by
show of hands, and of others by lot, or by lot following the
preparation of lists of eligible citizens, as at Florence—deter-
mined who the officials for the year or the term should be.
Aristotle gives it as a mark of advanced democracy that the
lot was used instead of ckeirotonia. (vi.? or vii., I, § 8.) The
Athenians wisely abstained from applying the lot, as a univer-
sal rule, several of the principal functionaries of the state and
the extraordinary commissions being exempted from its
operations. It was introduced, perhaps, to prevent coteries
and aristocratic factions from carrying their projects through
magistrates of their own choosing, and it found favor, per-
haps, by the opening which it made for the poorer classes
into political places, otherwise inaccessible to them.
Rome never drew the lot for its officers, and to a great
extent kept them from any subordination to each other. In
the army the commander could select some of the military
tribunes (colonels), but the state chose the rest. It is
remarkable that, although vast powers were entrusted to
the leading magistrates, the Romans, by the number of
co-equal ones, by the short term of office, by the checks they
could use upon one another, by the authority of the senate,
long prevented the rise of a tyrant or of a coalition aiming to
control the state.
In the republics of the middle ages, elections for very short
Elections in mid- periods, as for two, three, or six months, were
die ages.              made by the qualified electors, and sometimes
by very complicated processes. An approach to the lot, such
as it was at Athens, is seen in Florence when the constitution
ran into the more democratical channel. (Comp. § 188,)
The Florentine squittinio, however, drew the names from a
certain number of citizens, many being excluded for different
reasons, and the management of it became extremely dis-
honest, so that the reigning party in the later times of the
republic gave office under this form to whom it would. In
all the republics, I believe, a subordination of officials was
wanting in great measure. All of them depended immedi-