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ately on the towns themselves. In countries where kingly
power became strong, if the charters had given to the towns
the right to choose their mayors, the kings to some extent
acquired the power at length of nominating them as well as
of having a controlling voice in appointing the members of
the town councils.

In most modern  governments, whether constitutional  o'r
Appointments of not, the chief executive  has the appointment

officials in most mo-                                      111,1           rr                       i           i   -      , i

governments,   of all, or nearly all, the officers employed in the

service of the state. It seems highly proper and even essen-
tial that the administration properly so called, the cabinet,
should be under his control, both as it respects appointment
and removal. The English monarch exercises this power
in a certain subjection to public opinion. If the dominant
party insisted that a certain man should be prime minister,
it could not well be otherwise, and the prime minister has the
composition of the cabinet in his hands, yet he must have
a certain regard to the wishes of the sovereign and of his
colleagues. The President of the United States chooses his
cabinet subject to the approval of the senate, but can dismiss
them by his own free act. Their number, and for the most
part their functions, their salaries, number of clerks and other
particulars are determined by law. In constitutional govern-
ments where royal power is still strong, everything is in the
hands of the sovereign, who, however, will naturally act
through his ministers.
The modern practice is, and in fact the universal practice
has been, in well-constituted and efficient gov~
ernments, to divide the state work among the
ministers in such a way that each shall have his department
or portfolio, and none shall intrude into another's province.
In this way each is responsible for the success of his depart-
ment, the blame for slackness rests on him, and if peculations/
betrayal of secrets, employment of wrong agents, or other
misdeeds occur in connection with his department, to him the
fault is imputed. The cabinet also serve alone, or in connec-
tion with a council, as the advisers of the chief magistrate in