DEPARTMENTS OF GOVERNMENT IN A STATE. 283 As a great number of chiefs of bureaus and clerks are necessary for the transaction of business, a responsible minis- ter ou^ht to have power to decide who his own subordinates shall be, rather than be governed by the chief magistrate in this respect. In dismissions from office also the most respon- sible persons should be invested with sufficient authority. The habit of turning out of office for party reasons a com- , .. petent and faithful inferior officer, although it Turning subordi- f » fc> nates out of office. mav not ke possible entirely to prevent such an exercise of power, cannot be too severely condemned, as a general practice. And here we come to one of the most serious evils in the practical workings of those free govern- ments where party spirit is the principal driving-wheel in of religious affairs (cultes) and the fine arts, of agriculture and com- merce, and of public works. Italy has nine ministers with nearly the same functions. In the Prussian cabinet there is no minister for the navy; agriculture gives title to a minister, commerce with industry and the public works to another, and ecclesiastical affairs with pub- lic instruction and medical affairs, to another. Russia, again, with a grand council, chancery, and senate, has a central administration to which belong ten ministers, and of these the ministry of the court, that of the domains, that of ways and communications, are unlike the others spoken of already. Great Britain has no exact distribu- tion of offices in the cabinet. The first lord of the treasury and the chancellor of the exchequer—offices sometimes committed to the same person—the home, foreign and colonial secretaries, the heads of the boards of trade, of control and of the admiralty, with the post- master-general, the president of the council, the lord chancellor, and the secretary for India, with one or two others, generally make up the cabinet; but practical considerations may acid to or take from the ministers. The chancellor of the exchequer or the first lord of the treasury is generally the-preinier. Our cabinet in the United States is made, up of the secretaries of* state, the treasury, war, the navy, and the interior, with the postmaster and attorney-general.. The secretary of the interior is a modern addition. It is seen from this diversity that nothing but practical considerations decides how many and what officers shall belong to a cabinet. It seems to be impor- tant not only that the great interests of a country with the relations of the government to the laws and constitution should be represented, but that cabinets should be large enough to be able to bear respon- sibility before the country, and to carry with them a great weight of authority.