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As a great number of chiefs of bureaus and clerks are
necessary for the transaction of business, a responsible minis-
ter ou^ht to have power to decide who his own subordinates
shall be, rather than be governed by the chief magistrate in
this respect. In dismissions from office also the most respon-
sible persons should be invested with sufficient authority.
The habit of turning out of office for party reasons a com-
, .. petent and faithful inferior officer, although it
Turning  subordi-   f                                                                                         »                    fc>
nates out of office. mav not ke possible entirely to prevent such an
exercise of power, cannot be too severely condemned, as a
general practice. And here we come to one of the most
serious evils in the practical workings of those free govern-
ments where party spirit is the principal driving-wheel in
of religious affairs (cultes) and the fine arts, of agriculture and com-
merce, and of public works. Italy has nine ministers with nearly the
same functions. In the Prussian cabinet there is no minister for the
navy; agriculture gives title to a minister, commerce with industry
and the public works to another, and ecclesiastical affairs with pub-
lic instruction and medical affairs, to another. Russia, again, with a
grand council, chancery, and senate, has a central administration to
which belong ten ministers, and of these the ministry of the court,
that of the domains, that of ways and communications, are unlike
the others spoken of already. Great Britain has no exact distribu-
tion of offices in the cabinet. The first lord of the treasury and the
chancellor of the exchequer—offices sometimes committed to the
same person—the home, foreign and colonial secretaries, the heads
of the boards of trade, of control and of the admiralty, with the post-
master-general, the president of the council, the lord chancellor, and
the secretary for India, with one or two others, generally make up
the cabinet; but practical considerations may acid to or take from the
ministers. The chancellor of the exchequer or the first lord of the
treasury is generally the-preinier. Our cabinet in the United States
is made, up of the secretaries of* state, the treasury, war, the navy,
and the interior, with the postmaster and attorney-general.. The
secretary of the interior is a modern addition. It is seen from this
diversity that nothing but practical considerations decides how many
and what officers shall belong to a cabinet. It seems to be impor-
tant not only that the great interests of a country with the relations
of the government to the laws and constitution should be represented,
but that cabinets should be large enough to be able to bear respon-
sibility before the country, and to carry with them a great weight of