DEPARTMENTS OF GOVERNMENT IN A STATE. 285 cuses and conventions, these are manipulated so as to reward those who have worked hard for the party. It will appear, when we come to speak of parties in free governments more at large, what a great evil thus hinges on the power of the administration over inferior appointments, and how many evils, political and moral, follow in its train. At present, we ask whether a cure is possible ? The constitution itself fastens the evil upon us, so long as the power of removal is uncontrolled. If a president has the best intentions to bring up the civil service, the next successor or his cabinet can make wholesale removals, and the worth of the incumbent will not protect him if the office is worth having. A good system, which we fear can never be entirely carried out, would embrace these among other provisions. (See § 273, on parties in the United States.) 1. The cabinet officers, their chiefs of bureaus, the repre- Risht rules for sentatives of the country in foreign lands, some civil service. of tjie ieadmg custom-house officers and post- masters may properly belong to the victorious party, 2. The immense multitude of postmasters in smaller places may well be elected by the communities for whose good they are instituted, the people of the place giving security to the government for the faithful performance of their duties. Although they are a division of the army of public officers, they have a local character, and may be treated as other local officers are treated. 3. The inferior officers of customs, and others whose duties are of § permanent character, ought to hold office during good behavior. 4. Government clerks, consuls and consular agents, perhaps also the inferior diplomatic officials, may receive an appoint- ment on their first entering into the service of government, subject to their sustaining an examination satisfactory to a certain board. If they show themselves to be able and trust- worthy they ought to be invested with the office, and may be promoted without examination, but not removed so long as they are faithful and competent.