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286                             POLITICAL SCIENCE.
5.  The power of removal must not be taken away from the
government, but it must be based on sufficient grounds, and
the person so removed may, if he demands it, have a trial by
which his case shall finally be determined.
6.   No petition to the president or a cabinet officer for the
appointment of any one whatever to any office shall be pre-
sented by any member of the national legislature, or by any
other person except in writing, and with his testimony to the
moral character and ability of his nominee.
  In parliamentary governments a considerable  evil  arises
Frequent changes ^rom f^Quent changes of ministers.    There have
ofmimsters.           been in England since 1830 fifteen or sixteen
different cabinets. It is impossible that many projects, on
which great care had been bestowed, should not have fallen
through, and the progress of the country in some important
respects considerably retarded. It has been proposed, in or-
der to remedy this evil, that some of the ministers should be
elected by the legislative chambers on the basis of not retiring
with the rest of the cabinet, and with a certain fixed term of
office. England, it is said, cannot reorganize her army be-
cause there is no steady plan that can have a number of years
in which to be matured. MM. Guizot and Duruy in France
began important reforms in the department of instruction, but
left their posts without bringing anything to a final issue. It
is shown by experience that a good minister, sustained by an
enlightened despot, can effect much more than an equally
able man, whose place depends upon the majority in a legis-
lative assembly. And in the United States, where the cabi-
net officers are in no way responsible to the houses of con-
gress, a power of free, continuous action is within their reach
which they could not have, if they were liable to be turned
out at every change of public opinion. Moreover, if they
hold such relations to the legislature they ought to be mem-
bers of it, or at least to be able to appear before it and defend
the administration against their adversaries. All this is true,
but we see no prevailing reason for such an innovation. The,
point is to be settled by weighing the advantages and evils