DEPARTMENTS OF GOVERNMENT IN A STATE. 293 these had a claim, would not the great mass of consumers have a greater ? Mr. Calhoun's plan of giving protection to interests seems to be but another application of the protective policy which he justly rejected. We should have in this way opposing, even warring, interests, made perpetual by a constitution, and the country permanently divided up as far as law could make such a division. 220. Far more feasible is minority representation, if only it could . . take a simple and practicable shape. If prac- Minonty represen- r r r r totion' ticable it can be applied in all kinds of elections, for political and municipal officers, for representatives, and in the elections of private corporations, wherever, in fact, the persons voted for on the same ticket are more than one. This would require that many laws and even constitutions should be modified, and it will, without doubt, take some time before the rude, unjust rule shall be superseded, that the majority of voters, without respect to the wishes of the minority, must decide. As this subject has been very much discussed within a few years, it is not strange that many projects have been brought before the public,* the principal of which are the following : *The literature of this subject maybe found in M. Laveleye's essay " Sur les formes de gouvernement," but he has omitted some works and papers. Some of the principal are " La question elec- torate," Ernest Navile, 1871; Thomas Hare, "Treatise on the Election of Representatives " (1859, ed. i) ; H. Fawcett, Mr. Hare's Reform Bill Simplified and Explained ; Walter Bailey, " A Scheme for Proportionate Representation," whose views are recommended by the Marquis of Biencourt, in the Correspondent (June, 1870), and by M. Navile in his "R6forme electorate en France;" Simon Sterne on " Representative Government and Personal Representation," Phil- adelphia, 1871; Mr. Barculow's, proposed in Congress and through the press ; an essay on minority representation, by IX D. Field, in the Journ. of the Amer. Social Sci. Association, No. iii., for 1871, with several other essays on the same subject in the same number ; " De la rSfbrme 61ectorale," by Rolin-Jacquemyns, Brussels, 1865 ; an article in Bluntschli's Allgemeines Staatsrecht "xvi., 492, Munich, 1863;" Mr. J. S. Mill's work on representative government, chap. vii. ; Prof. Craik's (see text). A number of these essays I have never seen.