DEPARTMENTS OF GOVERNMENT IN A STATE. 293
these had a claim, would not the great mass of consumers
have a greater ? Mr. Calhoun's plan of giving protection to
interests seems to be but another application of the protective
policy which he justly rejected. We should have in this
way opposing, even warring, interests, made perpetual by
a constitution, and the country permanently divided up as
far as law could make such a division.
Far more feasible is minority representation, if only it could
. . take a simple and practicable shape. If prac-
Minonty represen- r r r r
totion' ticable it can be applied in all kinds of elections,
for political and municipal officers, for representatives, and in
the elections of private corporations, wherever, in fact, the
persons voted for on the same ticket are more than one.
This would require that many laws and even constitutions
should be modified, and it will, without doubt, take some
time before the rude, unjust rule shall be superseded, that
the majority of voters, without respect to the wishes of the
minority, must decide.
As this subject has been very much discussed within a few
years, it is not strange that many projects have been brought
before the public,* the principal of which are the following :
*The literature of this subject maybe found in M. Laveleye's
essay " Sur les formes de gouvernement," but he has omitted some
works and papers. Some of the principal are " La question elec-
torate," Ernest Navile, 1871; Thomas Hare, "Treatise on the
Election of Representatives " (1859, ed. i) ; H. Fawcett, Mr. Hare's
Reform Bill Simplified and Explained ; Walter Bailey, " A Scheme for
Proportionate Representation," whose views are recommended by the
Marquis of Biencourt, in the Correspondent (June, 1870), and by
M. Navile in his "R6forme electorate en France;" Simon Sterne
on " Representative Government and Personal Representation," Phil-
adelphia, 1871; Mr. Barculow's, proposed in Congress and through
the press ; an essay on minority representation, by IX D. Field, in the
Journ. of the Amer. Social Sci. Association, No. iii., for 1871, with
several other essays on the same subject in the same number ; " De la
rSfbrme 61ectorale," by Rolin-Jacquemyns, Brussels, 1865 ; an article
in Bluntschli's Allgemeines Staatsrecht "xvi., 492, Munich, 1863;"
Mr. J. S. Mill's work on representative government, chap. vii. ;
Prof. Craik's (see text). A number of these essays I have never seen.