294 POLITICAL SCIENCE. 1. The cumulative plan, which consists in casting as many votes as there are candidates, and being allowed to cast all or more than one for the same person. Thus let there be three persons to be voted for, and let the parties be one thousand and five hundred. The minority, by throwing all their strength upon one name could be sure of returning one representative. But small minorities would still be of no account. 2. Another plan, first proposed by Prof. Craik, of Belfast, is that there are three places to be filled, but no one is allowed to vote for more than two. Thus if, of fifteen hundred voters, one thousand return the candidates A and B, the minority, consisting of five hundred, can return the other. But in this case, by the proper management, the majority could overcome the voting power of the minority, unless the numbers approached nearer to equality than in the case sup- posed.* This plan could also be combined with the first mentioned. It has been put to trial in the English reform bill of 1867, in regard to certain boroughs returning three members to parliament. 3. Another plan, devised by Mr. Walter Bailey, is " a scheme for the proportional" or uninominal vote. Here each elector casts a single vote, and it may happen that such a number of votes shall be thrown for a single candidate, as may be far more than enough to secure his election. The candidate is allowed to publish beforehand a list of names of such persons as may in succession receive the benefit of votes beyond his necessary quota, which thus are put to their account. Thus the number of votes necessary to elect him being one thou- sand, the next thousand of his surplus goes to B, the next succeeding to C, and so on. This plan would involve an arrangement of electoral quotas much beneath the majority of votes to be cast, and the giving of power to a popular can- didate to say who should be his associates, the latter of which * That is, one thousand persons could so arrange their two thousand votes as to give A, seven hundred and fifty, B. seven hundred, an$ C. five hundred and fifty, but the highest number that the minority of five hundred could reach would be only five hundred.