DEPARTMENTS OF GOVERNMENT IN A STATE. 295 characteristics does not accord well with the idea of indepen- dence on the voter's part. 4. Mr. Thomas Hare's plan, which has been advocated by Mr. J. S. Mill, Mr. Fawcett, the political economist, and by many others, has the following features : Every voter places on his list the name of his first choice at the head, and after- wards others whom he would accept as his representatives in the order of his preference. There is to be a fixed electoral quota of votes as in the plan last mentioned, and the elector, in selecting his subsidiary candidates is not to be confined to his own district, but may range all over the country. When the votes are counted the person having the quota is elected, and his surplus goes to the next following, and so on. In this way every vote will tell for the measures which are favored by him who casts it. The plan will tend to elect the person who is the voter's first choice, first, and others in their order. It seems to be just; it represents the country, not the dis- trict ; and it is proportional. Fifty thousand voters in a party can return fifty members, if one thousand elects one, and they will probably be the best members of the party. Yet with these advantages the plan labors under very serious disad- vantages. How can ordinary electors select ten, not to say twenty or fifty names of persons by whom they would wish to be represented, in the order of intelligent preference ? The result, probably, would be less independence, a more com- pact system of instruction given by preparing committees to the electors whom to choose than now. Add to this the work of counting and arranging, which would be far greater than at present. It is needless to add that to the election of single officers it would have no application, an objection which applies equally to the other three which have been mentioned. § 221. There are two ways of choosing representatives and execu- Direct and indirect ^ve officers, when a constitution places the right elections. Qf ^0^ not ;n ^ fonds of another power, but of the people, or voting part of the people themselves.