302 POLITICAL SCIENCE. the same usage has prevailed in all the colonies founded by the Anglican race, in all the United States, in the American Congress, and the dependencies of the British crown speaking in the English language. It is remarkable that to the Anglican race this has seemed to be a law as fixed as anything in poli- tics, so that where there existed no natural basis for two chambers, or the bicameral svstem, as Dr. Lieber, we believe, % * first called it,* it was thought necessary to establish some artificial one. In England, although historical accident aided the permanent separation of the old estates into two, and gave to the commons an independent position, there were reasons why there should be two houses and no more. There was a marked line between the great land-holding nobility (including bishops and abbots, representing large lands held in mortmain), and the other persons called to the parliaments. And the burgesses representing the towns easily coalesced with the knights of the shires, since they had common interests in maintaining English liberties, and resist- ing usurpations. In the formation of the constitution for our union, a principle on which an upper house could be founded lay in the equality and antecedent separate existence of the states, The plan of the two houses of parliament was so far followed that the house of representatives was invested with the power of originating all money bills, while the senate, unlike the house of lords, confirmed treaties, and appointed certain officers, but somewhat like the lords heard and decided in cases of impeachment. In the colonies and states the houses were constructed on no one consistent plan. Gener- ally the senate or council was smaller; in many cases ti continued longer in the exercise of its functions ; in some, it was partially recruited in successive years so as never wholly to expire. It is singular what hold traditions from the mother country have had in some of the older states. The houses in some of them heard and granted petitions of divorce a mnculo matrimonii; in one or more the senate / * Civil Liberty, chap. xvii.