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302                               POLITICAL SCIENCE.
the same usage has prevailed in all the colonies founded by
the Anglican race, in all the United States, in the American
Congress, and the dependencies of the British crown speaking
in the English language. It is remarkable that to the Anglican
race this has seemed to be a law as fixed as anything in poli-
tics, so that where there existed no natural basis for two
chambers, or the bicameral svstem, as Dr. Lieber, we believe,
%                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    *
first called it,* it was thought necessary to establish some
artificial one. In England, although historical accident aided
the permanent separation of the old estates into two, and
gave to the commons an independent position, there were
reasons why there should be two houses and no more.
There was a marked line between the great land-holding
nobility (including bishops and abbots, representing large
lands held in mortmain), and the other persons called to the
parliaments. And the burgesses representing the towns
easily coalesced with the knights of the shires, since they had
common interests in maintaining English liberties, and resist-
ing usurpations. In the formation of the constitution for our
union, a principle on which an upper house could be founded
lay in the equality and antecedent separate existence of the
states, The plan of the two houses of parliament was so far
followed that the house of representatives was invested with
the power of originating all money bills, while the senate,
unlike the house of lords, confirmed treaties, and appointed
certain officers, but somewhat like the lords heard and decided
in cases of impeachment. In the colonies and states the
houses were constructed on no one consistent plan. Gener-
ally the senate or council was smaller; in many cases ti
continued longer in the exercise of its functions ; in some,
it was partially recruited in successive years so as never
wholly to expire. It is singular what hold traditions from
the mother country have had in some of the older states.
The houses in some of them heard and granted petitions of
divorce a mnculo matrimonii; in one or more the senate
* Civil Liberty, chap. xvii.