DEPARTMENTS OF GOVERNMENT IN A STATE. 303 heard appeals as a supreme court, after the manner of the house of lords. No person, so far as I know, has seriously maintained that the system of two houaes ought to be abol- ished. Since the establishment of constitutional governments on the continent of Europe, the practice has varied between one and two chambers. In France, the constitution of the Bour- bons of June 4, 1814, contained a provision for two, of which the members of the chamber of peers could be hereditary or for life. They continued through the Orleans dynasty, but the empire went back to one legislative body elected by open vote, with an appointed senate ; and at the present time, while we write, the one chamber of the constitution is discuss- ing projects of constitutions amid the predilections of oppos- ing parties, while the most enlightened men of the country are in favor of two.f The constitution of Norway has a singular device in it for something like two chambers, while in reality there is but one. The Storthing separates into two parts, one containing one-third, the other two-thirds, and laws are made by the vote of the two, confirmed afterwards by that of the whole assembly. Sweden, as we have seen, a few years since re- duced her four mediaeval estates to two houses, and is more like Great Britain in the composition of the new parliament than any other state of Europe. 223. If a nation is under free institutions, one at least of the Composition of houses must represent the opinion of the nation, Ofethecmorebpeopuilr ^s progressive political wisdom and its will. house. That tll}s may be done^ the territorv ought to be divided into districts small enough for the voters to form an independent judgment of the character of the candidates and of their political preferences. In some countries an endeavor f We are- glad to be able to add that a senate is already in exist- ence, the members of which are partly chosen by the people, partly by the chamber.