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to its fulfilment at once ; when there is such a call, the house
is morally bound to vote the money, because the treaty is
valid and their assent is only a form. Such a function as
the treaty-making one belongs to a branch of the legislative
possessing the requisite qualifications, and is not in theory,
nor ought it to be in practice, an exclusively executive act.
So such a branch might have a voice in appointments ; and in
a confederation, perhaps, in adjusting some of those questions
which can arise between the government of the union and
that of a particular state. On the other hand, the power of
originating money, bills, and some others, can best be lodged,
as in England, the United States, and in other modern con-
stitutional governments, in the more popular branch.

It was natural in England that the great mass of tax-payers
should by their representatives have the leading voice in de-
termining the amount and character of the tax. In the
United States not only the precedent of the English constitu-
tion led in the sape direction, but the just feeling that the
people's representatives rather than those of the states ought
to originate measures that must press on all. Yet, as there is
no such marked contrast between the senate and the house of
representatives as there is between the lords , and the com-
mons, our constitution allows the senate to amend money bills.

In all modern constitutions which are reduced to writing
Limitation on ie- the functions of the legislature, and of the
gisiative power. chambers, if there are two, are minutely de-
scribed. This seems to be important, because the executive
and legislature are in danger of invading each other's field,
and the executive, being always active, can use its force ef-
fectively when the other is at rest. In general the constitu-
tions of the German powers are so contrived that executive
action is as little hampered as possible. Great Britain differs
in its constitution from all other free states in having no
written constitution, and especially in having no limits placed
to the power of parliament. The parliament of England