DEPARTMENTS OF GOVERNMENT IN A STATE. 325
In some countries, as in England, and I believe, in France
Nomination for the also, as well as in the southern and western
legislative office. states of this Union, men have offered them-
Iselves to their countrymen as candidates for the legislature.
In the northern United States, for the most part this has been
thought indecorous, an obtrusion of one's self upon the pub-
lic, and instead of it the practice is that nominations are
made by agents of parties meeting in convention or' caucus.
This is the most objectionable way altogether of getting into
a political place, and involves the government of parties by
bad men, and through them of selecting men of party,
available men, unobjectionable men, or weak men for legisla-
tors. I propose to consider this mode of selecting candidates
again, when I come to the subject of party government.*
In order that legislative chambers should be able to dis-
of mem- charge their duties at all times, in some coun-
bers of a legislature. , . , 1 1 , . -\ r , •
tries they nave been exempted from arrest in
going to the place of their duties and during the continuance
of the sessions. This seems to be reasonable, for it is quite
conceivable that a member of a deliberative assembly might
otherwise be deprived of his vote by political enemies.
Crimes of violence, however, breaches of the peace on the
part of such a one, ought not to pass unnoticed, nor the trial
for them be put off.
Within the chamber of legislation itself the members are
generally, and with reason, safe from all outward jurisdiction.
As for rules of order, and rules relating to the introduction
of business, the reference of it to committees, the reports and
debate upon it, the repeated readings, and the like — all this,
* Aristotle, however, was offended by persons offering themselves
as candidates for office. He says of the Spartan gerusia that one
cannot approve of a citizen's personal solicitations for office which
took place there. (Pol., ii., 6, § 18.)