352 POLITICAL SCIENCE. ruins of a decayed civilization.* Among forms of government those swayed by will, as despotical monarchy, extreme oli- garchy, extreme democracy, are not favorable to institutions. Thus Louis XIV. disliked parliaments and the meetings of the three estates, as being essentially checks on his power. In the extreme democracies and oligarchies, in fact, there is no steadiness, because there are no political habits,; anew device is tried by the reigning party to secure its own tri- umph. In larger states of the same kind, the sway of the majority is the first principle, and any barriers that resist un- • constitutional aggressions, even constitutions, are themselves thrown down if possible. Usages and institutions arise and grow within the religious Religious usages sphere as readily as within the political, and and institutions, perhaps in the right circumstances grow there more freely. We refer here not to positive enactments in re- i» ligion, like circumcision, baptism, and the Lord's supper, but to such as develop or support a religion in its practical work- Ings in a particular direction. An instance of usages extend- ing far beyond their original limits may be found in the thanksgiving which has spread over the United States from New England without any law whatever. Instances of reli- gious institutions may be found in the order of prophets, which, although a part of the Jewish system at a very early date, outgrew its first form, associated itself with schools, with literature and history; so as to become the most effi- cient support of religious life in the nation against political and religious corruptions. The oracle of Apollo at Delphi, with the temple worship which supplanted earlier shrines, became allied with politics and with religious festivities, and was the capital of Greece more than any other spot. The papacy in its growth as a religious institution is still more marvellous ; borrowing the prestige of Rome and resting on * Beaumanoir, in the prologue of his Customs of Beauvoisis, says that " on ne pourroit trouver &s royaume de France deux chastel- eries, qui uzassent d'une mesme coustume." I owe this citation to a French author.