364 POLITICAL SCIENCE. count This change was connected with a change of name ; they were now called scdbinei or scabini (from the root scafan> to draw out, to ordain}, a word which, in various forms, and sometimes with a loss of its original sense, appears in various languages, and shows the spread of the institution.* In many of the towns, especially in Germany, the Dutch provinces and Flanders, the scabini formed an upper class of inhabitants, from whom the town councils and the principal boards of judges were selected. At the time when the Sach- senspiegel was composed, the word scJwffenbar, i. e., capable of becoming a schofife, denoted a hereditary rank, the fifth in order and the next after the freie herren. At Ghent there were thirteen of these schoffen in the court of judges, thirteen in the council, and thirteen who had no official place. At Bruges there were thirteen lifelong ones, and the same num- ber of councillors, that is, twelve of each, with a burgomaster of their number. These town-officers or judges were often wealthy citizens j who knew little of law, so that they needed advisers, the more if their office continued but a single year. Their advisers were called pensionaries from the pay given to them, and after the Roman law. began to spread, were usually doctors or licentiates of law, who did not change with the change of the schoffen, but had a more permanent appointment. The same practice prevailed at the meetings of the estates of a province. Thus in Holland the grand pensionary was 'the paid officer or attorney of the estates, and in a town the pen- sionary was the attorney of the town judges or town council. Olden-Barnevelt was at first pensionary of Rotterdam (which office Grotius filled afterwards), and then grand pensionary; as such he would be present at the meetings of the estates * Comp. Grimm, D. Rechtsalterth., p. 775, ed. i ; Dietz, Etymol. Wort, sub voce in part first. In the Germanic dialects it is: scepen, old Saxon; sceffeno, old high Germ.; schoffe, schoppe, Germ.; schoepe, Dutch; schepe, Flem.; and in the Romanic: scabino, schiavino, It&L; esclavin, Span.; Schevin, J?r. For the institution of Charlemagne relating to scabini J have referred to Sohm, Frank. Reichs-u-Gerichts^ verfass., § 18, in another place.