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366                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
many trades will find them the best places for their operations,
and the facilities of living will increase as divisions of labor
multiply. It is impossible for the manufacturer to be always
near to the farmer, and the true interests of both are best
consulted, when they can buy and sell in the cheapest mar-
ket, and not when centres of business are artificially stimula-
ted by protective tariffs.
Now all these places need some kind of political protection,
Government need- but a township where there is a scattered popu-
ed by cities and   a         .                                                                                    r   r
scattered population, lation with at most a village or two, needs one
kind of government, while a city with a compact population
needs another. They both, however, agree in this that they
have special wants of their own which are best known to the
residents, while in other respects their interests cannot be
separated from the interests of the general country.
The question now arises how can these civic or rural com-
munities be best governedóby a control emanating from a
central authority with no self-government on their part, or by
3. general law (or, it may be, a special charter), dependent on
the legislative will of the country, yet conferring on them
powers of local administration and legislation, within certain
limits and under certain restrictions. This is a very great
question, apart from the comparative advantages of the cen-
tral and the local government, and in a free nation one of
surpassing importance. For instance, in a large state belong^
ing to our union there are some five hundred townships, be-
sides a large number of villages and many cities. A bad gov-
ernment for all of these unfits the state as a whole to govern
itself well;. a bad government for a large city does more than
thisóit spreads a pestilential influence over all the surround-
ing country.
The instinct of a free people is to leave as much self-gov-
self-government ernment to every part as is consistent with one
of towns.               jaw^ Qne a<imjnistration, one general supervision
pervading the whole state; and in the local community to
prevent officials from oppressing individuals, and all town-
authorities from neglecting their duties. The instinct of a