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despotism is to dread any independent or partly independent
control within its own limits, even if that be restricted locally
and in its amount. The instinct of such a government, even
when paternal, is to distrust the capacity of any smaller com-
munity to do anything for itself without first obtaining leave.
If a country were left to itself, the towns would inevitably
have some kind of law and administration of their own. But
there would be a danger of a great splitting up of territory,
which would, by its lawlessness, end in tyranny and centraliza-
tion, or, by its want of common law and control, prevent
perfect freedom of intercourse. This extreme, we must con-
fess, would be worse than the other, which makes intercourse
and life safe by the power of a common master. The early
tyrannies were blessings to the world by uniting small com-
munities, but is there not a more excellent way than either ?
There is, we think, a more excellent way. It is to unite
union of local and general government and local self-government
general government  jn   ^   due   proportions   ancj   SQ   f^at   they   shall
not interfere with one another. But this balance between the
powers of the state and of a city or town, a creature of the
state, must be confessed to be as difficult, if not more difficult
than that between the state and the confederation in a federal
Here it seems necessary before we proceed further to en-
Centrai and dis- deavor to make the proper distinctions between
•tribute power, centralization and distribution of power. De
Tocqueville, honored alike at home and with us, in his Democ-
racy in America, makes two kinds of centralization ; one in
which the power controlling the general interests is centred in
one place or in the same persons so as to constitute a central
government; the other the power which directs partial or
local interests and proceeds from a central administration. If
a central government, he continues, is united to administrative
centralisation, its powers thus acquired are immense. These
two kinds of centralization must not be supposed to be insepa-