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methods of securing obedience to a superior's will are failing
to secure their ends. Meantime, the other plan, it is found,
has raised up a class of small land-owners, who are the'best
protection of a country in danger, defending it as much as it
defends them ; who may be relied upon for paying taxes and
bearing public burdens, who expend far more in educating
children and in comforts than an equally large community of
tenants would, or of farm laborers ; who feel the stimulus of
the possibility to raise their families in the world, which would
be wanting to hereditary tenants. It would be impossible,
when once such a population had managed its own affairs, to
take this power away without struggles certain either to de-
stroy the central power or to insure future despotism.
Some of these considerations apply to cities as well as to
rural communities. There are others which are peculiar to
the former. The cities, being centres of industry and capital,
need special and greater protection against internal evils;
they understand their own wants, but, owing to a diversity
of classes and to causes growing out of a compact population,
find self-government harder in proportion to their size and
compactness. The lower classes in cities have in general a
much less permanent abode than in country communities,-
and are open to many evil influences. In free states, if not in
all states, the virtues and the vices of society are seen in cities
in their extremes; the dread of the frowns of men is not felt
by the vicious, where every one is unknown to most of those
whom he meets and can find companions to his liking. It is
evident that e more efficient nocturnal, sanitary and detective
police is needed in cities than elsewhere ; that a fire depart-
ment is there a great interest; that drainage, paving of streets
and of sidewalks, laws in regard to contiguous buildings, to
markets, garbage, and the like, have their home in cities,
while in rural districts such things are of far less importance.
Without going further Jnto the subject, we are prepared al-
ready to say that the circle of duties which a city is called to
do, in order to perform its appropriate part to the inhabitants
and to the state, is very much greater than that of the rural