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3/6                            POLITICAL SCIENCE.
aged by obscure politicians, private bargains of office-seek-
ers,  devices  for the purchase, at great expense,   of things
needed  for public  buildings,   erection  of public  buildings
by dishonest contract, and all sorts of base jobs  flourish.
Why is this  so ?     It seems  to  be so partly,   because so
many who vote are not taxpayers in the city and  are led
by  others:   partly because  there  is  not sufficient control
lodged in the mayor's or other chief officer's hands.    If he
is made responsible, some of the evil would be done away.
If, where taxes are voted, as in the boards of a council, capi-
tal could have its just influence, much corruption would come
to an end.   In regard to the election of city governors, it may
be said that they all ought to be chosen by the city itself.
For the state to appoint the mayor is as much against the
true principle as for a king of France to  make the same
appointment.    The evils which such a plan of taking elections
out of the hands of the community is intended to remove are
party elections, and election by those who have nothing to
lose by a choice of unprincipled men.    But an election by
the state legislature, or an appointment by the governor,
would be controlled by party interests, like one by the city
itself. . As for election by universal suffrage, for this there is
no cure except by restricting suffrage in civic affairs to the
taxpayers, which is more desirable than attainable.     But
something would be gained if a certain amount of capital,
by making objections to a tax, could in some way cause it to
be more maturely considered.    As it is, we fear that larger
capitalists prefer their own quiet; they pay what is assessed
upon them without complaint, or live  in  the country, or
manage to have their property not taxed at all, or at a low
3. The power or competence of an incorporated city need
Amount of power no* be spoken of at large.    It may be said nega-
to be given to cities.   tjvely   ^^   jt   ought   nQt  t<>   haye   poWer   tO  do
anything which is not justly deducible from the purposes for
which it has been incorporated. The power of taxation must
belong to all self-governing communities, but it is too great ^