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378                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
allowed, until as at Athens, the incomes of the rich are almost
held to be public property, to be used for the pleasures of
the community.
In saying this, I do not wish to be understood as relying
on the large taxpayers principally, or even as much as on
those whose incomes support them by the help of economy.
The very rich are little concerned in town affairs, too little in
public affairs, so that if they were disfranchised, it would
work no great harm to them or to others. I have heard the
remark made by one who had himself served in town coun-
cils, that aldermen of very moderate means were more in-
clined to curtail tax-bills than any other members. The rea-
son is that they themselves feel any unnecessary expenditure,
and they know what men possessed of similar properties can
That a control of a legislature over a city budget is not
enough of a security against waste or fraud, is strikingly
shown by the instance of New York, where the state can and
does alter the charter of a city at will, and where the actual
debt, a part of it gross fraud, a part by paying
much more for work or constructions than was needed, is
so large that a moderate increase must cripple the interests
of business to a great extent, if not drive it to other quar*
4. The elections should be in the hands of all who cat!
who ought to vote vote fr state elections, but a question of some
in city elections. importance is whether inferior judicial office/s,
like those who are called " police justices," and the police
itself, ought to be in any way under the control of the popu-
lar vote. There are strong and evident reasons why the
pointment of police officers should be in the hands of
mayor, subject possibly to rejection by the town council*
Those officers, again, who hold police courts, if chosen by
common vote, will be men of most profound ignorance re*
specting law, who have no character to lose,' who have beta
employed in the mean occupation of ward politicians,
acquaintances or political friends are likely to appear