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380                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
of the direct control of local affairs. The remedies which
they recommend are principally these : the appointment of a
chief executive officer having general supervision, with the
power to appoint other principal executive officers, except the
chief financial and law officers ; and of a board of finance
elected by tax and rent payers, with such powers only as relate
to taxation, expenditure, and debt. They are to determine the
amount of annual expenditure and to appropriate it to its
various objects and purposes. The board of aldermen are to
have nothing to do with these financial duties. It is pro-
posed also that no money shall be borrowed or debt incurred
except under certain specified conditions not likely often to
These or better recommendations must be adopted, or, in
the long run, well-governed communities will take the start
of ill-governed. New York, for instance, will decline by an
inevitable law of retribution.—It is only the immense im-
portance of the subject that leads us in a work like this into
these details,
5. The election ol mayors is of especial importance. Shall
it be in the hands of the central government, or
Election of mayors.
of the town councils, or of the people ? The
French are now seeking to cut the connection between the
mayor and the government, by committing the choice of this
magistrate to the town councils (1876). Hitherto there km
been a great fluctuation in the system, but by existing law
mayors are appointed by the sovereign in every chef-lieu qf:
departments, arrondissements and cantons, and by the prefect
of a department in all smaller communes. Certain officials
are incapable of serving in this capacity while they hold an«
other office. The mayors and their adjuncts receive no salary
are removable by the sovereign, and may be suspended bj
the prefect for a short period, which the central governrneal
may extend. He has duties as representative of the govern^
ment, and others as head of the commune, which cannot her$
be noticed, except that it belongs to him to present the
get of the commune to the council All the communes