INSTITUTIONS, LOCAL AND SELF GOVERNMENTS. 381 France are subject to one and the same law, except Paris, where the prefect of the Seine acts as head-mayor, and every one of the twenty arrondissements into which the city is di- vided has a separate mayor of its own. The police is man- aged by a special prefect, and the unity of the city is repre- sented by a common council of eighty members, chosen one from each of the four quarters into which the arrondissements are divided. The government of Lyons also is formed after a model nearly similar to that of Paris.* In England, after the reform bill of 1832, and especially by the municipal reform act of 1835, great changes took place in the government of the boroughs, where various abuses had reigned unchecked for several centuries. These boroughs were chiefly under the control of town councils " usually elected for life, and conducting their proceedings with closed doors," and in their almost entire freedom from responsibility, using their offices as means for obtaining trade privileges and as ministering to parliamentary corruption. By the act of 1835, town governments are in the hands of a mayor, alder- men and councillors, z. e., of a town council. The council- lors are chosen by the burgesses ; they must be burgesses themselves, must occupy ratable property, varying with the size of the borough, and they hold office for three years. The aldermen are elected by the councillors, and hold their office for six years, one-half of their number retiring every third year; "and since they can vote for their successors, it is found in practice that a party which is strong enough to re- turn a large majority of aldermen is not easily dislodged from its supremacy in the town council.17 The mayor is chosen by and from the council every year. The act of 1835 vested no magisterial jurisdiction in the councils of boroughs, ex- cept that the mayor and ex-mayor are ex officio justices of peace; and all local justice is administered by magistrates appointed by the crown, especially by a magistrate paid by * Count de Franqueville in Cobden Club Essays, 1875.