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382                               POLITICAL SCIENCE.

the borough (if there  should be one ia the place), called a



In this country of universal suffrage, experience has taught
us the need of warding against evils arising from certain
plans of appointing municipal judges. I should trust as little
to a mayor chosen by the board or boards that have the ad-
ministration over our cities, as I should to the legislature,
which seems to me to be incapable of judging and as likely
to be influenced by party considerations as the voters in the
municipalities themselves. The choice by town boards has
some advantages, only the mayor ought not to be selected
from their own number. And there is great danger lest the
mayor, if so elected, should make corrupt bargains with those:
who choose him. On the whole, if the mayor is ex offim
to have very considerable power of appointment or even ol
nomination, and if one of his chief functions is to exercise,
supervision and control over the city councils, it would seem
best to elect him in such a way that the councils shall have no
control over the election.

6. The choice of executive officers below the mayor may

Choice   of other    be    made    b^   that   °fficer»   °r  b7   a   Council,  OT

executive officers, ty pOpuiar suffrage. Mr. J. S. Mill (Repress
Govt., chap, xv. > p. 298, Amer. ed.) thinks that such per-
sons should be nominated and not elected. " It is ridiculous^
says he, " that a surveyor or a health officer, or even a c©^
lector of rates, should be appointed "by popular suffrage
The popular choice usually depe'nds on interest with a fW
local leaders, who, as they are not supposed to make tla$;
appointment, are not responsible for it, or on appeal to syna*
pathy. ... If, in cases of this description, election by tk4*
population is a farce, appointment by the local representath*^
body Is little more objectionable. Such bodies have a
petual tendency to become joint-stock associations for
ing into effect the private jobs of their various
Appointments should be made on the individual responsibi!8f|

,   * I apa indebted for these particulars to, and sometimes' use
words of, the Hon. G. C. Brodick, in Cobden Club Essays, U. s.*