388 POLITICAL SCIENCE. words). The councils of the communes vary in number be- tween seven and twenty-one, who have a residence in the territory of the commune itself, except that in very small places a part of the members may be supplied from another commune. They are chosen for six years by electors paying direct taxes to the amount of at least ten francs. Half the council goes out every three years. The úchemns orsc/iepm, as well as the burgomaster, are named by the king from among the councillors, and hold their offices for six years, but may be displaced or suspended by the state authorities. The councils manage the property and revenues of communes; regulate and pay their expenses ; see to the police, especially in regard to health and public security; administer the pub- -lie establishments of the communes, attend to public works, and lay local taxes, subject, however, to the royal approval. The echevins, who, with the burgomasters are salaried officers, take care of the communal property and the archives; make known the resolutions of the council and execute them ; keep registers of births and deaths ; attend to suits in which the commune is concerned ; and supervise the servants of the commune, hospitals, and theatres. The burgomaster is head of the police and administers local justice, subject of course to appeal, i.e., he has charge over breaches of the law and crimes committed within the limits of the commune. It will be seen from this brief sketch, which we give on M. Laveleye's authority, that the state has too great control over the execu- tive officers of the communes.* In Spain the municipal officers are alcaldes or mayors, dep- Municipai reguia- utY mayors, in number equal to the districts of tions in Spain. the towri) and councmors (conccjahs). Certain members who represent the town at law are called syndics. The councillors are elected, one-half of them every two years, in districts, and the alcalde is chosen by the board of coun- cillors. Their functions include police, care of revenues, sanction of expenditures, supervision of institutions of benev- *Laveleye in the Cobden Club Essays, u. s., 256-264.