388 POLITICAL SCIENCE.
words). The councils of the communes vary in number be-
tween seven and twenty-one, who have a residence in the
territory of the commune itself, except that in very small
places a part of the members may be supplied from another
commune. They are chosen for six years by electors paying
direct taxes to the amount of at least ten francs. Half the
council goes out every three years. The úchemns orsc/iepm,
as well as the burgomaster, are named by the king from
among the councillors, and hold their offices for six years,
but may be displaced or suspended by the state authorities.
The councils manage the property and revenues of communes;
regulate and pay their expenses ; see to the police, especially
in regard to health and public security; administer the pub-
-lie establishments of the communes, attend to public works,
and lay local taxes, subject, however, to the royal approval.
The echevins, who, with the burgomasters are salaried officers,
take care of the communal property and the archives; make
known the resolutions of the council and execute them ; keep
registers of births and deaths ; attend to suits in which the
commune is concerned ; and supervise the servants of the
commune, hospitals, and theatres. The burgomaster is head
of the police and administers local justice, subject of course
to appeal, i.e., he has charge over breaches of the law and
crimes committed within the limits of the commune. It will
be seen from this brief sketch, which we give on M. Laveleye's
authority, that the state has too great control over the execu-
tive officers of the communes.*
In Spain the municipal officers are alcaldes or mayors, dep-
Municipai reguia- utY mayors, in number equal to the districts of
tions in Spain. the towri) and councmors (conccjahs). Certain
members who represent the town at law are called syndics.
The councillors are elected, one-half of them every two years,
in districts, and the alcalde is chosen by the board of coun-
cillors. Their functions include police, care of revenues,
sanction of expenditures, supervision of institutions of benev-
*Laveleye in the Cobden Club Essays, u. s., 256-264.