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IN the second part of this  treatise  we arranged under
subjects here several heads the ends for which the state is

treated of.             necessary .    The conclusion was reached, that,

addition to the protection of rights and obligations, the gene-
ral defence against foreign foes and the maintenance of public
order, there are certain departments of work which the state
may take upon itself, either exclusively or in concurrence
with individuals or associations. These kinds of work - may
be neglected by the state while yet it performs its most im-
portant functions. It may even appear best that a state
should have no direct concern with one or another of them,
but should leave them to voluntary efforts, only superintend-
ing and controlling such efforts, so as to keep them within the
limits of justice and public benefit. To some of these we
riow invite the attention of our readers, intending to make,
but few remarks on most of them, as requiring no long expo
sition to disclose their relations to the state, but only practical
rules which experience in public business will suggest. Others
of them will demand a more extended discussion. The sub-
jects are safety against foreign foes and preservation of order
within the state ; public health, roads, taxation, protection
of industry, the relations of the state to education, to the
poor and infirm, to morals and to religion.

I. The United States are so remote from any foes that can
safety against for- be dreaded that the maintenance of an army $
dgnfoes>             'a minor interest    In the late war of secession