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394                           POLITICAL SCIENCE.
II. A nation needs armed forces against seditions and in-
safety and order surrections, but the question of public order de-
within a state. pends mainly on a well-devised system of police.
In another place we have restricted this term to the English use
instead of allowing it to embrace all that care of the public
welfare which is not included in the military, financial, and
judicial departments of administrative power. It is with us
the means, subordinate to other powers, of protecting the
persons and property of individuals against injury, especially-
arising from evil-doers, but, in part, from natural agents also;
and of detecting the authors of such injuries in order to bring
them to justice. A detective policeit has appearedcan-
not properly be separated from a defensive, for the two func-
tions, as they deal with the same classes, and even individuals,
are best lodged in the hands of the same policeman or of men
belonging to the same corps. It is idle to follow theory, and
say that as one is related to the judicial organs of society
(namely the detective) and the other not, they ought to be
committed to different persons. In regard to the proper
constitution and connections of the police of society, there is
much about which we feel that we are at a loss. The follow-
ing remarks may serve to show the extent of the police power,
the responsibilities under which it should be exercised, its
connections within itself, the mode of its appointment, and
the divisions of which it is susceptible.
I. A question of a preliminary nature is whether the car^
of public order and safety ought to be made a distinct depart*
ment from the care of public health.    Indeed, might not pub;,
lie charity, the care of the poor, be confided to the same great
board with the two others mentioned ?    There is a reason foe,
separating public charity and health from public order, whid$;;
seems sufficient in large places to prevent their being unite^
in one.   The care of health needs the highest medical science^
and public charity is closely connected with it;  for thd
and houses of the degraded poor are sources of infection