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lish law with fine and imprisonment, and formerly was held to
be an accessory. And by a statute of the last century, " to
advertise a reward for the return of things stolen, with no
questions asked, or words to the same purport, subjected
the advertiser and the printer to a forfeiture of 50!. each.'1
(Blackst. iv., p. 134.)
III. The care of public health is closely connected with
The care of public public charity or the care of the poor and suffer-
health-               ing, and it may need a supervision of its own to
prevent the introduction of dangerous diseases from abroad.
It is also most closely connected with police regulations relating
to the way of building houses, their condition as to cleanliness
and drainage, the removal of all morbific excrements, and the
supply of wholesome water. We shall consider only how far
a sanitary police can be used for curing or for preventing dis-
ease. The need of sanitary law mainly touches compact
towns. A population scattered over farms, with wise pre-
cautions against impurities being mixed with water or milk,
will need in ordinary times very little supervision, and the
medical men of the neighborhood, when epidemics invade a
rural district, are generally able to give the needful directions
to the people without the assistance of officers of health.
We will consider then, especially, compact towns, and first,
as to the public interference in curing diseases, which was
first tried in very ancient times. Public physicians are men-
tioned by Diodorus of Sicily as being employed among the
Egyptians. They received a salary from the public, and if
they were unable to heal the sick while following the written
recipes of ancient physicians were subject to no charge ; but
if the patient died when they pursued a course aside from
these written traditions, they were subject to capital trial,
(i.  82.) In parts of Greece, also, publicly paid physicians
seem to have existed. (Plat, Gorg., 514 D.) As early as the
first age of the Roman empire mention is made of town-
physicians in Marseilles and other towns in Gaul. Antoninus