398 POLITICAL SCIENCE. i Pius made an ordinance for the province of Asia that in every town, a number of physicians, nominated by the town author- ities and removable from office by them, should enjoy immu-' nity from all public burdens. These physicians, five, seven, or ten, according to the size of the place, received a salary from the town, but could also enter into private practice. Later still the usage of appointing such town-physicians be- came common through the Roman empire. They formed an ordo under which the other physicians stood ; and when anew member was nominated by the town authorities an examina- tion by the college of the archiatri, if favorable, entitled him to the first vacant place.* The same practice has been fol- lowed in a number of modern towns and countries. It seems that a desire to relieve the sufferings of the poor, and perhaps the prevention of the spread of disease have been the leading motives for setting up the institution. In modern Christian times hospitals for the sick poor, in part, if not more effectu- ally, supply the same needs, together with visits of health offi- cers to the houses of those who apply for aid. The great office of modern sanitary regulations is to prevent the introduction and spread of disease. Here a very wide field is open, which can be properly taken care of by no asso- ciation of medical men or of private philanthropists, but needs that public authority should be vested in some board or com- mittee. This sanitary police consists of many parts, such as a good sewerage, removal of garbage, an enforced system of ventilation in schools, united with the proper system of warm- ing, the placing of graveyards outside the limits of dense population, together with all necessary precautions against diseases of foreign origin. A large outlay in the first instance is required for these objects, but it will be met whenever judiciously made by a diminution of the death-rate and the increase of the tone of health in the town or city. Scientific and experienced medical men ought to take the lead in such enterprises and to be clothed with all necessary authority. * See more about this usage in K, Sprengel, Gesch. d. Arzeneikunde, ii., 106 and onw.