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398                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
Pius made an ordinance for the province of Asia that in every
town, a number of physicians, nominated by the town author-
ities and removable from office by them, should enjoy immu-'
nity from all public burdens. These physicians, five, seven,
or ten, according to the size of the place, received a salary
from the town, but could also enter into private practice.
Later still the usage of appointing such town-physicians be-
came common through the Roman empire. They formed an
ordo under which the other physicians stood ; and when anew
member was nominated by the town authorities an examina-
tion by the college of the archiatri, if favorable, entitled him
to the first vacant place.* The same practice has been fol-
lowed in a number of modern towns and countries. It seems
that a desire to relieve the sufferings of the poor, and perhaps
the prevention of the spread of disease have been the leading
motives for setting up the institution. In modern Christian
times hospitals for the sick poor, in part, if not more effectu-
ally, supply the same needs, together with visits of health offi-
cers to the houses of those who apply for aid.
The great office of modern sanitary regulations is to prevent
the introduction and spread of disease. Here a very wide
field is open, which can be properly taken care of by no asso-
ciation of medical men or of private philanthropists, but needs
that public authority should be vested in some board or com-
mittee. This sanitary police consists of many parts, such as
a good sewerage, removal of garbage, an enforced system of
ventilation in schools, united with the proper system of warm-
ing, the placing of graveyards outside the limits of dense
population, together with all necessary precautions against
diseases of foreign origin. A large outlay in the first instance
is required for these objects, but it will be met whenever
judiciously made by a diminution of the death-rate and the
increase of the tone of health in the town or city. Scientific
and experienced medical men ought to take the lead in such
enterprises and to be clothed with all necessary authority.
* See more about this usage in K, Sprengel, Gesch. d. Arzeneikunde,
ii.,    106 and onw.