404 POLITICAL SCIENCE. Patent laws are a necessary kind of monopoly in which the government sanctions the sole right of making, or of selling to others the right of making certain things, over which by natu- ral right he, as inventor, ought to have the control. The rea- sons of justice and of public policy here are manifest. Ought any other monopoly to be allowed ? And here we refer to what is called a protective tariff, by which it is intended to make certain articles produced in foreign countries so much dearer than competing articles at home, that they will be ex- cluded or admitted only because a sufficient quantity of the articles in question can or cannot be furnished by domestic industry. We call the employments cherished by protective tariffs monopolies, since if the tariff does its work to the extent of the home supply, the people of the country are forced to use these articles because others are made more dear. And as articles of prime importance, as stuffs for wear, iron, coal, and the like, will naturally be protected, such laws have very serious consequences in the way of a tax on all other industries, and on persons consuming the protected articles. I shall not enter here into the argument on a protective tar- iff, as distinguished from a revenue tariff. Happily, all writers of credit, with scarcely an exception, are agreed that they are built on a false policy. I will only say that they involve the tyranny of preventing the producer from sending his wares to the best market, that they make it necessary in the end to protect raw material, as well as the products for which they are needed, and thus partially defeat their own ends by increasing the price of the former; that they lead to endless bargains and sectional disagreements in a country where raw materials are the chief products; that they draw away a nation's energies from that which it can raise to the best advantage, and even lay a tax on such products; and that by lessening in these ways the amount of accumulated capital, they retard the growth of a country and the success- ful prosecution of many branches of industry.