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VII.   It has, we trust, been made to appear : (i) that no
Eeiationofstateto parent has aright to withhold an education from
education.              j^g chji^ jf it be within his reach ; (2) that a com-
munity has a right to make compulsory the education of all
the children within its territory ; (3) that thus it becomes a
duty, or at least may be a duty of a state to establish a pub-
lic system of education ; (4) that the right of free teaching
ought not to be invaded by any state laws or any system of
state teaching.*
There are some points of difficulty connected with the rela-
tions of the state to education, which we shall consider for-
mally in order.
1.   How much education must be supplied by the state to
the children within its borders ?   We answer by saying that
the children should be compelled to learn so much that they
may be able in after-life, by exercising themselves in what
they learn, to receive knowledge through books, to commu-
nicate with others at a distance by pen and paper, and to
keep accounts.    Beyond this, which all ought to know, and
which ought to be essential for being admitted to the right of
suffrage, the state may not be obliged to go.
2.   Should universities, high-schools, and grammar-schools
be founded by the state ?    The stress of this question lies on
the universities, for the preparatory places of training, when
once there is a demand for them growing out of the desire of
acquiring the highest forms of knowledge, can easily be fur-
nished by towns or private persons ; and such endowments
are favorite ways, for inhabitants of the towns, of showing
their attachment to the place of their birth or their residence,
With regard to the universities  by which we mean institu-
tions where all kinds of learning are taught, and which form
corporate bodies with power to regulate the admission, the
* Some of the points here discussed are briefly spoken of in  78,