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406                             POLITICAL SCIENCE.
course and incitement to study—the first point worthy of no-
tice is the different position which they occupy in different
lands.    In Great Britain, to a large extent, they are truly
self-subsistent institutions over which the government exer-
cises little control, except by its power of visiting all the in-
stitutions  of the  country.     In  Germany  the   government
creates the university—as that of Halle was created in the
last century, and those of Berlin and Strasburg in the present,
—appoints and  pays  the professors,   and  makes  or gives
to councils or to faculties the right of making, subject to con-
trol, all necessary laws.    But this is peculiar in Germany,
that the liberty of teaching has long been in the hands of the
professors by a kind of common law, so that there is almost
entire freedom of propagating from the professors' cathedra
any opinions, however strange or bold, which do not endan-
ger the state itself.    Only now and then in the department
of theology are enormously unchristian opinions uttered by a
professor of Christian theology, followed by his deposition.
In France the same connection of the teaching body with the
state subsists, but with less freedom of teaching on the pro-
fessors' part than in Germany, and recently with the permis-
sion to found free universities not subject to the state's con-
trol,  where  the  state  does not   appoint the  teachers nor
contribute to their support.    In the United States there are
few institutions which can be called universities in any sense.
The system of education began with erecting schools, answer-
ing to the English college within the university, which, after
the invention of printing, and more after the reformation,
almost paralyzed the functions of the university proper.    Add
to this that some of the sciences, formerly considered to be a
part of university teaching, migrated to large cities from some
of the seats of learning, as was the case with law and medicine,
which throve better at London than at Oxford and Cam-
bridge, on account of the superior advantage of pursuing them
in the larger town.    But the colleges in this country, founded
after the colleges there, by and by extended their course;
new departments in medicine, law, theology, and even art,