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were engrafted on the old stock, so that they are universities
and something more. These were followed by public univer-
sities in a number of states, most of which, while possessed
of at least three faculties, have never, we believe, given in-
struction in theology. And this reveals the inevitable diffi-
culty of state universities in a country where there are a num-
ber of Christian denominations with equal rights. No one of
them will consent that another shall occupy the chairs of the-
ology at the centre of learning, so that either there must be
nothing taught in this science, or any denomination may be
allowed to establish its school under the wing of the university,
or the sects will prefer to endow and control their own schools.
This last plan has been almost everywhere adopted in this
country ; but with some advantages it involves this evil, that
a single department by itself, whether law, medicine, or phil-
osophical science or theology, is in danger of becoming
narrow, and of aiming at merely professional results. There
is danger that the evil will act on the teachers and on the
students, leading them to undervalue all branches outside of
their own, and giving them within their own departments a
shallow, conceited spirit.
But besides this unwillingness of the denominations that
one should have advantages from the state which all cannot
enjoy, the trenchant principle of entire separation between
church and state will involve a divorce between the state and
theological science, for the science itself will have closer con-
nections with one church than with another. In fact, that
science, on its historical side, must include the examination
into the nature of the Christian church, its organization, the
rights of the laity, and kindred questions. We can hardly
conceive, then, that a complete university can exist under
state patronage in the United States.
But, still further, how can history or ethics be taught in a
university unless the professor expresses himself on great
events like the reformation or the papacy of the middle ages,
which have to do with the progress of mankind. Here, if
all Protestants nearly are agreed, Catholics will differ from