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408                              POLITICAL SCIENCE.
them entirely, and may justly urge that their opinions are
attacked without their having an opportunity to defend them.
Thus history cannot be taught, or must be taught by rival
professors, medisevalists, and men with a modern spirit.
Again, although it would naturally be thought at first that
mental and moral philosophy are a field where all theists can
meet together, this is not found to be the case, and especially
in ethics will the freedom and responsibility of the individual
man be subjects of conflict among Catholics and Protes-
tants. Even in Great Britain it was thought necessary in the
Dublin University bill of 1873 to exclude the teaching not
only of theology, but that also of morals and metaphysics, as
a necessary part of instruction. The reason for this may
have been the desire to avoid the suspicion that the Catholics
would get hold of these chairs ; but whether it were this or
the desire to conciliate Catholics towards the project, here
we see one of the most enlightened men of the age consent-
ing to urge through parliament a mutilated university, one
that belied its name, and this, we suppose, because he thought
no other plan feasible. History with even greater reason
should be excluded, for who could calculate the power of a
man like Ranke, to spread convictions which he could not but
utter, touching the very essence of Catholicism as tested by
history ?
But we may go farther and say that the natural sciences by
the same logic of sects must be excluded from a state uni-
versity course in this country. What right has the state to
permit a man to teach a doctrine of the earth or the solar
system which jests on atheism, if theism and revelation must
be banished from the scholastic halls. Why permit evolution
to be publicly professed more than predestination ? Thus,
when the denominations become fully aware of the principles
involved in modern science, they will not fail to complain of
the state as taking sides against religion, and will not fail to
aim their blows against the university.
Hence it would seem that there is an insuperable difficulty
in the way of such state institutions, which no timef, no com-