SUBJECT-MATTER OF LAW AND ADMINISTRATION. 415 a ll over the world. In the Hebrew law, humanity breathes forth continually, but scarcely goes beyond moral precepts, such as that of giving back a pledged garment (Deut, xxiv., 6), or making it unlawful to take a widow's raiment in pledge (ib., v. 17), or allowing the poor to glean after reapers, and in the corners of fields (Comp. Saalschiitz, Mos. Recht, chap. 33). The Athenians, a humane people owing to their equality, went farther in the one point of aiding the poor by law. Among them, and nowhere else in Greece as far as is known, was there public provision for the infirm poor, which is said to date back as far as to Pisistratus or Solon, and to have been confined to such as had been rendered unable to work by accidents in war. Afterwards the dole, which never rose above two obols nor fell below one, was granted to all poor persons incapable of work who were worth less than three mince (nearly sixty dollars), and were allowed by vote of the people after examination to be placed on the list. Thus they received less than those poor men who sat in the assem- blies and the dicasteries. Boeckh and Schoemann estimate the whole annual expense of the city on this account at from five to ten talents.* Besides this there were clubs at Athens (e/jaz/oi), for common purposes, religious or social, or for mu- tual support. At Rome there seem to have been no institu- tions of charity, but from the time of C. Gracchus onward grain was bought up and sold at a low cost to the poor of the city, until almost one-fifth of the revenue is said to have been used for this purpose, t The law of C. Gracchus was not dicta- ted by humanity so much as by demagogy ; it gave the right to the Roman citizens of living at the expense of the state, by allowing them to buy a certain number of Roman modii of grain for about half price. The effect of this was to depress *See Schoemann, Gr. Alt, i., 442, and Boeckh, Staatshaush. d. Ath., B. ii., § 17. \ Cic. pro Sestio, xxv., 55. Comp. the note of Halm. What Cicero says seems to amount to this : that almost a fifth part of the revenues was used up in the remission of 6J asses on every modius of wheat sold by the public. This lowered prices, as they then were, nearly one-half. See also Lange, Rom. Alt., ii., § 138.