418 POLITICAL SCIENCE. at all times, and never more than in the first century after that transference of property, for their charity and munifi, cence."* May not one cause of the increase of pauperism have been the disappearance of the yeomanry, who would be succeeded gradually by farm-laborers on the soil of the large proprietors ? f Possibly another was that the best laborers flocked to the towns, as these began to start upwards, and to offer more inducements to industry. By the first statute for the relief of the impotent poor, passed before the dissolution of the monasteries (1535, 27 H. 8), a fine was imposed on giving alms to beggars, and collections were to be made in every parish. In 1572, under Elizabeth, compulsory contributions were first tried. In 1601 the famous Poor Law Act of 43 Eliz. was passed, which re* quired the parishes to provide for the support of maimed and impotent paupers, and to provide work for the able-bodied poor who should be without employment* An act which was passed in the year 1662, and introduced the plan of set- tlement into the poor law system, was a necessary corollary to the earlier ones ; for, if the parishes supported their own poor and were compelled to do it, why should they receive the poor from other parishes also, which lay under the same obligation. From this time the poor man grew more like an adscriptus gleb<s ; if he became impoverished in another parish where he acquired no settlement he must be thrown back upon his own parish, as if it were to be his prison. Among the laws afterwards passed, that of 1795 seems to have been the most harmful. It adopted the plan of adding to wages in the parish, when they were thought to be insuffi- * Const. Hist., i., ch. 2, p. 109, omv. f Mr. Brodrick, in Cobclen Club Essays for 1875, p. 22, uses the following words pertinent to our subject: " The fact remains that by the reign of William IV. the descendants of freeholders, who once sat as judges and legislators in the courts of their own county, hun- dred and township, had sunk into day-laborers but one degree re- moved from serfdom, dependent on individual landlords for the hum- blest dwelling, and on landlords assembled at quarter or petty ses- sions for the security of every civil right."