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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

SUBJECT-MATTER OF LAW AND ADMINISTRATION.    421
those who, by calamities not of their own causing, are worthy
recipients of the bounty of the public. These ought to be
separated from the unworthy pauper and to have superior fare.
2.   May not the law of settlement be a great hardship in
certain cases.    We will suppose the case, that a country town
with good water-power is chosen as the place for a number of
manufactories.    Two or three thousand workmen are collected
together, and when disasters befall the business of the coun-
try and the manufacturers are involved in ruin, the families
of workmen have acquired a " settlement " by six years' resi-
dence, without being  an  expense to the township.    They
have thus a right to support, but! when the capitalists and
their capital is gone, there is perhaps not one wealthy person
left behind.    Now suppose five hundred families should re-
main for six months or a year in this dismantled place ; would
not the burden be crushing to those who barely make the
ends of the year meet, and have the calamity besides of losing
the home sale of what they raise on their farms ?    The law of
settlement then may be a very injurious law, which shuts up
the obligation to aid the poor within so small and needy a
population.    It would seem from these extreme cases as if
there ought to be some equalization of burdens between the
different communities.
3.   No public aid to the poor or the suffering should super-
sede the activity of private persons.    If it were possible, that
is, if the burden thus thrown on the benevolent were not too
great to bear, the management even of the public relief given
to the poor and suffering would be advantageously put into
private hands.    As this seems impossible, there ought to be
as much thrown upon humane and Christian persons, in those
acts of benevolence which require immediate contact ,with
pain or misery, as they can bear.    Besides this, they will of
course direct the methods of employing the funds of the vari-
ous private benevolent' societies ; and in more loosely organ-
ized ways will aid the poor and helpless of their churches and
their neighborhoods.
4.  If it is the state's duty to help the unfortunate poor, it